New Year Honours -the people and the work recognised

Each year the New Year’s Honour list recognises the work of individuals who have made achievements in public life and committed themselves to serving and helping across the United Kingdom.

Once again in 2017 some of those recognised for their work were from UK fire and rescue services. A little more detail is in this blog about those that received awards and their work.

Awarded the Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE)

Dr Brian Ward, Head, National Resilience Assurance Team. Brian’s award was for services to the Fire and Rescue Service and National Resilience. He recently retired from West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service (WYFRS).

Dr Ward began his career with West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service (WYFRS) 25 years ago, before moving on to an appointment as Regional Emergency Planning Manager, being seconded into National Resilience. His role has involved planning the response for national disasters and major incidents.

West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service’s Chief Fire Officer, Simon Pilling, said:

“Brian has been an outstanding officer both during his time as Chief Emergency Planning Officer in West Yorkshire Fire and Rescue Service as well as becoming the National Resilience Officer heading national teams engaged in the provision of specialist emergency response capabilities, including urban search and rescue for collapsed structures and high volume pumping for flooding events. Brian attended the major explosion and fire at Buncefield, Hertfordshire in 2005 to coordinate water supplies feeding the massive foam attack necessary to extinguish the conflagration.

Brian’s commitment to national resilience and emergency response has been exemplary and I’m delighted to see him rewarded for his dedication to public safety. I wish him well in his retirement.”
Awarded the Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE)

Robin Iffla, Scottish Fire and Rescue Service Board Member. For services to equality & community cohesion in Scotland. Robin was appointed  lead trainer for Central Scotland Police in 2001 and was also seconded to various authorities and partner agencies. Robin now advises the public sector throughout Scotland and the UK on Diversity Awareness through his own company as well as being on SFRS board.

Donna Finch, Community Development and Safeguarding Manager, Essex Fire and Rescue Service received the award for services to Children, Young People and Vulnerable Adults in the community. Donna has been with the Service since 2004. In her role, she manages the Service’s Firebreak programmes, the school’s education programme, Essex Fire Cadets, the juvenile fire-setter scheme, the Duke of Edinburgh national licence for the Chief Fire Officer Association (CFOA) and is Safeguarding Manager for Children and Adults. One of the most successful programmes has been the work with children with Down’s Syndrome in partnership with charity Downs Syndrome Extra 21. Earlier this year, that work was recognised with ECFRS being awarded a World Down Syndrome Award from Down Syndrome International. This Firebreak programme is now delivered in Australia and America.

Medallist of the Order of the British Empire (BEM)

Peter Clarke, London Fire Brigade. For services to the community in Croydon through the Crossfire Team. Peter’s award recognises his work creating “Crossfire”, a multi agency community engagement project designed to reduce hoax calling, deliberate fires and anti-social behaviour (ASB), through education and direct partnership working. Set up 13 years ago, predominantly to tackle the high number of hoax calls and non-accidental fires in the borough of Croydon, the project is currently working in partnership with around 25 agencies and is being rolled out into other London boroughs.

Peter served as a firefighter for 30 years at New Addington fire station, he retired but now works for the Brigade’s Education team on the “Crossfire” project.  Peter has raised over £500,000 in funding since the project’s inception, in order to sustain the project financially.

Peter from Croydon, said: “I’m completely shocked, it’s very humbling to receive this award.  It’s a feather in the cap for the project as a whole and everybody who has been involved with it.  I feel very proud. The project started because fire engines kept getting attacked and something needed to be done.  It’s really nice to be publicly acknowledged for what I’ve achieved.”
Simon Jakeman Firefighter, London Fire Brigade. For services to Sustainability and Energy Efficiency in the London Fire Brigade. Over the past year Simon has been encouraging all 412 watches in the Brigade, to embrace environmentally-friendly policies in the workplace. He joined Surrey Fire and Rescue service in 1995 and transferred to the London Fire Brigade in 2007 and has served at Surbiton fire station for eight years.

Simon from Chessington, said: “I am totally amazed. In fact, lost for words and feel really honoured to be recognised for my green work in the New Year’s Honours List. I’m just doing my bit.  To think this all started with one tomato plant in a fire bucket on a fire station roof!”

Prithipal Singh Kang. For services to Fire and Rescue – Fire Awareness and Community Cohesion in North Kent. Prithipal joined Kent Fire & Rescue Service in 1985 as a Community Liaison Officer – the first person appointed to this post in the country. Initially his role focussed on fire safety but he also worked to promote recruitment amongst ethnic minority groups and women to the fire service in Kent. He mainly achieved this by visiting and building relationships with places of worship and businesses.

Prithipal said of his award “I would like to say thanks to the KFRS personnel for their encouragement and support over so many years.  I would also like to say thanks to the people of Kent and of course my family.”
Awarded the Queen’s Fire Service Medal for distinguished service (QFSM)

This award is for members of fire services for the exhibition of conspicuous devotion to duty. Some of the fire service personnel awarded this in 2017 New Year’s Honours were 

Alex Bennett, lately, Chief Fire Officer (Retired July 2016) Northumberland Fire & Rescue Service spent 32 years in the fire service. He began his career at Royal Berkshire Fire and Rescue Service in the 1980’s  where he spent 18 years. He moved  to Northumberland in 2002, serving a number of roles before becoming Chief Fire Officer in January 2012. Northumberland County Council chief executive Steven Mason said: “Alex led the fire service through challenging times, and this has now been properly rewarded.

“We would like congratulate him on his Queen’s Fire Service medal and thank him for all of his hard work in the county.  There is no-one who is more deserving of this medal.”

Trevor McIlwaine, Group Manager, Leicestershire Fire & Rescue Service began his career as a firefighter at West Midlands Fire Service, joining Leicestershire in 1998 as a Station Manager. He became a group Manager in 2008 with responsibility for both community safety activity technical fire safety across Leicestershire and Rutland.

Jason Thelwell, Chief Fire Officer and Chief Executive, Buckinghamshire Fire & Rescue Service since early 2015 joined Buckinghamshire Fire & Rescue Service as Assistant Chief Fire Officer in 2010 after 17 years with Cheshire Fire & Rescue Service.

Jason Thelwell 

Jason said: “It is truly a great honour to receive this recognition, but my congratulations must go to our staff. I am immensely proud to work with some of the most talented and hard-working public servants in the country, who work tirelessly in Buckinghamshire and Milton Keynes to save lives every day. They all contribute to making this one of the safest places in England, and I want to thank them publicly for what they do. This award is dedicated to them all.”
Christopher Davies, Chief Fire Officer, Mid & West Wales Fire & Rescue Service. Chris joined South Glamorgan Fire Service in 1984 and after serving as a firefighter and an officer he secured a secondment to the Fire Service College in 1996 to spend three years as Assistant Divisional Officer in the Command and Management Faculty. A further secondment later followed as part of the Governments New Dimension project which gave him responsibility for the implementation of the National Resilience programme for Wales.

He also undertook the roles of Deputy Divisional Commander and Head of Community Safety, before he joined Mid and West Wales Fire and Rescue Service in 2008 as Corporate Head of Community Risk Reduction. He was promoted to the role of Assistant Chief Fire Officer in 2011. He was appointed Chief Fire Officer for Mid and West Wales Fire and Rescue Service in 2014.

Christopher Davies

Chris said of receiving his award “I have served 32 years in the Fire and Rescue Service and enjoyed every minute of my time, to be recognised in this way is truly humbling and I would like to thank everyone who has worked with me during my career.”
Ian Bell, Watch Manager, Scottish Fire and Rescue Service. Ian joined the fire service in 1989, and has served in a number of fire stations across Glasgow and the West of Scotland. He has risen through the ranks and held supervisory management positions and taken command of many significant operational incidents.

In addition to his day job, Ian has invested a huge amount of his personal time in two very worthy organisations – the SFRS Burns Club and SFRS Pipe Band.

The SFRS Burns Club aims to raise the profile of Scotland’s national poet by raising funds for a variety of charitable causes. In the years that Ian has operated as event organiser, the supper has raised in excess of £20,000 for charity.

Ian also dedicates time to the SFRS Pipe Band and has developed a youth band.  He has led the development of the band for a number of years and has invested a significant amount of his own personal time in ensuring that the youth band provides young, aspiring musicians with an opportunity to develop their musical talents in a safe and supportive environment.


Fire and Rescue Services mobilised to assist with East coast surge

As a result of the current Arctic blast currently sweeping the country, emergency plans have been put in place in preparation for the potential of an East coast surge.

This includes the deployment of fire and rescue service and other National Resilience assets.

This follows the cold northerly wind which hit parts of the country and bad weather is set to continue.

This deployment is to help protect the public threatened by the East Coast tidal surge and is organised through CFOA and National Co-ordination and Advisory Framework (NCAF).

Assets currently deployed include FRS boats, tactical advisers, flood rescue teams, high volume pumps and command units.

Mobilisation has currently taking place in the following areas: Lincolnshire; Norfolk; Suffolk; Skegness and Humberside.

Updates will be issued as the situation progresses and changes.

Fire and Rescue staff recognised in New Year Honours

Huge congratulations from the Chief Fire Officers Association (CFOA) to all those who have received a New Year’s Honour from the Queen.

The list below highlights those honoured who work in fire and rescue services.

These were decided by an honours committee; its decisions then go to the Prime Minister and then to the Queen, who awards the honours.

The Honours system recognises people who have:

  • made achievements in public life
  • committed themselves to serving and helping Britain

Nominations are judged on:

  • degree of risk
  • how aware the nominee was of the danger
  • persistence

Honours for services including those to the fire and rescue services, fire safety and to the community were awarded to the following:

Awarded the Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE)

Dr Brian Derek WARD  Head, National Resilience Assurance Team. For services to the Fire and Rescue Service and National Resilience

Awarded the Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE)

Robin Iffla, SFRS Board Member, services to equality & community cohesion in Scotland.

Ms Donna Joanne FINCH, Community Development and Safeguarding Manager, Essex County Fire and Rescue Service. For services to Children, Young People and Vulnerable Adults in the community

Medallist of the Order of the British Empire (BEM)

Peter Kenneth CLARKE, For services to the community in Croydon through the Crossfire Team, London Fire Brigade

Simon James JAKEMAN Firefighter, London Fire Brigade. For services to Sustainability and Energy Efficiency in the London Fire Brigade.

Prithipal Singh KANG For services to Fire and Rescue Awareness and Community Cohesion in North Kent.

Awarded the Queen’s Fire Service Medal (QFSM)

Lately, Chief Fire Officer (Retired July 2016) Northumberland Fire & Rescue Service

Group Manager, Leicestershire Fire & Rescue Service

Chief Fire Officer and Chief Executive
Buckinghamshire Fire & Rescue Service

DAVIES Christopher
Chief Fire Officer, Mid & West Wales Fire & Rescue Service

Watch Manager Ian Bell, Scottish Fire and Rescue Service

CFOA responds to Radio 5 Live programme on second appliances

Following the recent Radio 5 Live programme ‘5 Live Investigates’ on fire appliance response times, the Chief Fire Officers Association (CFOA) would like to clarify a key point made in the programme.

During the programme, it was stated that firefighters are not allowed – by law – to enter a burning building before a second appliance arrives as back-up.

CFOA would like to reassure the public that this is not the case; this is an untrue statement which misrepresents fire and rescue services and the thousands of firefighters working across the UK to keep the communities they serve safe.

In the example given during the news item it implied that there was no intervention by fire crews before the second appliance arrived. This is not a true record of events; the first attending appliance had commenced firefighting and rescue immediately on arrival.

National Operational Guidance allows firefighters to enter a property to conduct lifesaving operations within a safe system of work, even when crew numbers are limited.

CFOA has also highlighted the Fire and Rescue Services operate to their own local plans, called Integrated Risk Management Plans (IRMP).

These allow individual services to assess risks to communities, meaning resources can be targeted to prevent incidents and ensure resources are in the best location. These plans are tailored to meet the needs of the community, the environment, commercial activity, local needs and also economic factors.

This approach allows services to more responsive to local needs and the plans are reviewed, monitored and updated regularly.

The programme itself focused on response times based on a Freedom of Information request by the BBC. 60 per cent of fire and rescue services stated that second fire engines were slower to respond to house fires currently than in 2010.

While Government figures show response times across the UK are up by 20 seconds for dwelling fires, CFOA firmly believes that these figures should not be taken in isolation; risk management plans and National Operational Guidance must be taken in account when looking at these statistics.

Following the Home Secretary’s Fire Reform announcement earlier this year, CFOA made a commitment to work with the Government to drive reform forward, including CFOA taking a leading role in seeking assurance that fire and rescue service funding will be sustainable.

It is a well documented fact that austerity measures has led to fire budget cuts of more than £300 million during the last six years (28% of government funding), which has had an impact on recruitment.

In addition, the number of operational staff has fallen by almost a fifth in the last five years. All Services use their resources in the most effective way to serve their communities.

Parliament talks drowning prevention

A one-off oral evidence session was held in Parliament by the Transport Committee on 5 December 2016. The sessions aim was to scrutinise the structure and coordination of organisations that work to prevent and respond to emergency incidents around the coastline.

It also asked questions around the issues of beach safety, and the responsibilities of beach owners and managers in ensuring the safety of the public in the light of a spate of tragic accidents at a number of locations in summer 2016.

The Chief Fire Officers Association’s Water Lead, Dawn Whittaker, was one of those invited to give evidence.

It was an excellent opportunity for CFOA and members of the National Water Safety Forum (NWSF) to highlight the collaborative work that is undertaken to prevent drowning and also to raise awareness with politicians of the UK National Drowning Prevention Strategy. The strategy was launched in February 2016 and has an overarching aim of achieving a 50% reduction in accidental drownings in the UK by 2026. In real terms this means reducing the number of accidental drownings from approximately 400 per annum to 200.
CFOA_Water Safety Poster_DOG

The session also highlighted wider issues relating to drowning including the significant issue of drowning on inland waterways which accounts for around two thirds of fatalities. Furthermore, the impact of non – fatal drowning events are significant and as Dawn Whittaker mentioned these lead to serious and life changing injuries for up to eight times as many people as fatal drowning events.

NWSF members also met last week with the Local Government Association (LGA). They are the supporting association for politicians working in local government. Again this is a crucial link to develop in order to help raise awareness of the drowning issue amongst local councils.

It is hoped that by speaking to the LGA and raising awareness, local councils will be encouraged to take positive action to help prevent drownings as part of their duty of care. Councils would be encouraged to undertake risk assessments. Data which is collated and held on the WAter Incident Database (WAID) and the expertise of the NWSF can be drawn upon and be used to inform communities of their local level risk.

A meeting with Transport Minister, the Rt. Hon John Hayes CBE, also ensured that Ministerial support for the Drowning Prevention Strategy would continue and would he would further engage with other ministers to widen that support.

Of course underpinning this awareness is a real need for education around water safety. Beckie Ramsay campaigns for drowning prevention as part of the Doing it for Dylan campaign which she set up after the loss of her son in 2011. Beckie also works as a volunteer safety advocate for Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service and has supported many other fire and rescue services with local campaigns and events. She welcomed the parliamentary session and was able to submit some written evidence, this is important as we must not forget these are not just numbers – they are people. If we educate children now and in the future, as we do with regard to road and fire safety this may be an important step in reducing the number of drownings.

Don’t let neighbours be lonely this Christmas….

Following the news story about an 89 year old man seeking work to escape boredom, he is now due to start work at a cafe after the owners of a family-run business spotted his request.

This is a timely reminder that isolation and loneliness can have huge impacts on people’s health – especially older people.

War veteran Joe Bartley,  placed an advert in a local paper: “Senior citizen, 89, seeks employment in Paignton area. 20hrs+ per week. Still able to clean, light gardening, DIY and anything. I have references. Old soldier, airborne forces. Save me from dying of boredom!”

Joe said he had lived alone since his wife died two years ago, and had been lonely. According the Guardian interview “When you live on your own there is no one to speak to. Since she died I’ve moved into a flat and it’s a big block. Once you walk into that flat it’s like solitary confinement.”

This time last year, John Lewis’s Christmas campaign focussed on loneliness ‘Show someone they’re loved this Christmas”, and this story serves as a timely reminder to check on friends, relatives and neighbours.

The Chief Fire Officers Association (CFOA) works closely with the NHS to identify vulnerable people aged 65 and over. One of the aspects firefighters look for when carrying out home safety checks is isolation and loneliness.

As well as fitting handrails, or fixing hazards, firefighters also looking for issues such as loneliness and fuel poverty. This could lead to people being signposted to services and organisations which could offer help and support, and ensuring the relevant organisations are informed about people who may be struggling.

Health Minister Jeremy Hunt has previously praised the work of fire and rescue services and the partnership work with NHS, helping to reduce pressure on services in the future.

NHS England, Public Health England, the Fire and Rescue Service, Age UK and the Local Government Association have a consensus statement which sets out how the organisations will work together to encourage local action and minimise service demand, while improving the quality of life of people with long-term conditions.

It means fire services across the country will aim to carry out more ‘Safe and Well’ checks in people’s homes when they visit. By extending the 670,000 home safety checks carried out each year into a ‘Safe and Well visits’, this will help vulnerable people and those with complex conditions.

When the consensus statement was launched, Simon Stevens, NHS England Chief Executive officer said: “By preventing issues such as falls and broken hips we are also reducing A&E visits, isolation and depression and by spotting social issues earlier we can help people to stay in their own homes for longer.”

In Greater Manchester for example, firefighters form a Community Risk Intervention Team to provide a multifaceted response to keep people safe in their homes, reducing demand on ambulance services and facilitate early discharge from hospital.

Mind Blue Light Programme to continue to March 2018

In yesterday’s Autumn Statement, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Philip Hammond
announced that Mind’s Blue Light Programme been awarded a further £1.5 million in LIBOR funding.

The funding will allow the mental health charity to continue to deliver vital mental health support for 999 staff and volunteers until March 2018, in partnership with emergency services ablue-squiggle-cropped-for-webnd local Minds in England.

The funding will also enable this much-needed support to be made available in Wales from 2017. Several new areas of work with 999 call-handlers, accident and emergency workers and emergency service new recruits will also be developed.

In addition to this, research will be carried out into how the Blue Light initiative can potentially impact on the way blue light employees and volunteers interact with members of the public.

fire-crew-chatting-2Research from Mind found that over 9 in 10 emergency services workers have experienced stress, low mood or poor mental health whilst at work and over one in four admitted that this has caused them to contemplate suicide. A review of the impact of the first year of the Blue Light Programme has shown that it had a ‘markedly positive impact on those it reached’ but there is still a challenge to meet in order to provide support and tackle the stigma attached to mental health in the workplace.

CFOA will continue to support and promote the delivery of this programme and is delighted to see that the support available will be extended to services in Wales.

You can read more about the Blue Light Programme and their future plans here  and access a number of resources produced to support emergency service workers:

  • Blue Light Infoline –a confidential infoline, just for emergency service staff, volunteers and their families – call 0300 303 5999 or text 84999
  • Sign the Blue Light ‘Time to Change’ pledge
  • Watch webinars designed for each emergency service which share the experiences and personal stories from staff and volunteers as well as practical ways to recognise mental health problems and how to look after your own mental health
  • Download or order information booklets for your service



As Storm Angus and widespread flooding hits part of the UK and is likely to continue for the next 48 hours, the Chief Fire Officers Association (CFOA) has said Fire and Rescue Services across the UK are on standby to assist as and when they are required.

A number of services have already been responding to the worst-hit areas and all FRSs are ready to assist.

The Environment Agency has issued 37 fresh flood warnings today, telling communities, mainly in the South West and North East, to ‘take immediate action’. Another 204 flood alerts are in place elsewhere.

The UK Fire and Rescue Service makes the largest contribution to the national flood response capability; with more than 100 powered rescue boat teams and 36 non-powered rescue boat teams immediately available for deployment.

Other equipment and assets include the deployment of high volume pumps, wading teams, tactical advisers and logistical support.

High volume pumps are capable of moving up to 7,000 litres of water per minute, while powered boats crewed by swift water rescue trained firefighters and wading teams are essential in helping to rescue people and ensuring vital supplies can be delivered.

These numbers are supplemented by almost every fire appliance in the UK; with firefighters trained and equipped to provide as a minimum an initial rescue capability. This response can be sustained over an extended period of time.

On Monday November 21st the Met Office issued amber warnings – the second highest severe weather alert – for Devon and parts of Somerset. In addition the Environment Agency (EA) had published further flood warnings for the south-west, across North East England (up to the Scottish borders) and Wales.

It said impacts were likely to include flooding of properties and parts of communities, and “significant disruption” to travel with a number of roads and rail services likely to be affected. The EA also warned people should be “prepared for disruption to transport due to localised flooding, whilst flooding of homes and businesses is also possible”.

Last year during Storm Desmond and Gertrude hundreds of firefighters were deployed to assist. This was part of a national response, coordinated by CFOA’s national resilience arrangements. This means teams can be quickly mobilised nationally to assist with equipment, rescue teams and expertise. The National Resilience Assurance Team (NRAT), supported by lead CFOA officers, coordinates the national response while providing vital support to government.

Dan Stephens, CFOA National Resilience Strategic Lead, said: “At the end of last year and beginning of 2016, we saw the devastating impact flooding had on communities across Cumbria, Lancashire and Yorkshire. All of the emergency services work together closely and around the clock to assist people at times of flooding. Being able to mobilise our national assets quickly and effectively is an essential part of our national resilience response. It is essential that the public have confidence that the emergency services can – and will – respond quickly when they need us.

“Storm Angus is no different; all Fire and Rescue Services are on standby to assist to ensure people affected by the floods are given the help and support they need.  Last winter’s floods in Cumbria, Lancashire and Yorkshire impacted upon thousands of families, with many being evacuated, homes severely damage and more than 60,000 properties being without power, due to the flooding of a power station. CFOA is committed to working alongside the police, ambulance service, the military and other partners to ensure the best possible response is delivered to communities when affected by wide area flooding. If we are requested to assist we are ready to deploy firefighters, equipment and tactics advisers quickly.”

Fire and Rescue Services also coordinates a national response to wide area flooding on behalf of DEFRA through a well-established and highly effective National Coordination and Advisory Framework.


Take Brake’s Pledge and Make Roads Safer

This week is Road Safety Week (21-27 November) and CFOA, along with fire and rescue services throughout the UK, will be supporting the key messages of this campaign in order to help prevent road deaths and injuries.

The week was introduced in 1997 and is coordinated by Brake and is the UK’s biggest road safety event. It exists to help stop the five deaths and 62 serious injuries that happen everyday on UK roads.

It’s a simple ask – change our driving behaviour and help to make UK roads safer. Sign up and share Brake’s Pledge online.

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Brake have outlined the six elements of the Brake Pledge for Road Safety Week 2016  which are are Slow, Sober, Secure, Silent, Sharp and Sustainable.

  • Slow:Breaking the speed limit or travelling too fast for the conditions is recorded by police at crash scenes as a contributory factor in more than one in four (27%) fatal crashes in Great Britain [1].
  • Sober:Having even one drink before getting behind the wheel can affect your ability to drive. In 2013 one in 10 (11%) drivers/motorcycle riders killed in a crash had alcohol present in their body, even though they weren’t over the legal blood-alcohol limit [2]. One in seven road deaths are at the hands of someone who has driven while over the limit [3].
  • Secure:Seat belts are still seen as an inconvenience by some drivers, yet using one reduces the chance of dying in a crash by 50% [4]. 21% of car occupants killed in crashes were not wearing a seat belt [5].
  • Silent:Drivers who perform a complex secondary task, like using a mobile, while at the wheel are three times more likely to crash than non-distracted drivers [6].
  • Sharp:Booking in for a regular eye test should be at the top of any driver’s to-do list. Road crashes caused by poor driver vision are estimated to cause 2,900 casualties and cost £33 million in the UK per year [7].
  • Sustainable:By minimising the amount we drive, and walking, cycling or using public transport instead, we are making our communities safer places, and doing the best we can for the environment and our individual health. Air pollution is a major killer: there are an estimated 29,000 deaths per year from particulate matter pollution in the UK [8], 5,000 of which are attributable to road transport [9].

Look out for events and activities for National Road Safety Week from your own local fire and rescue service. Types of activities range from leaflet drops and talks in schools on cycling safety to driving advice for winter. Look out for #RoadSafetyWeek and #BrakePledge on social media and help spread the word.

For more information about being safe on the roads whether you are a driver, passenger, pedestrian or cyclist please visit

[1] Reported Road Casualties Great Britain 2014, Department for Transport, 2015, table RAS50001
[2] Statistical data set: Reported drinking and driving (RAS51), Department for Transport, 2014, table RAS51007
[3] Provisional estimate for 2014, fromReported road casualties Great Britain: Estimates for accidents involving illegal alcohol levels: 2014 (second provisional), Department for Transport, February 2016
[4] The impact of driver inattention on near-crash/crash risk, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 2006
[5] Oral evidence: Road traffic law enforcement, HC 518, Transport Select Committee, 7 December 2015
[6] The Impact of Driver Inattention On Near-Crash/Crash Risk: An Analysis Using the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study Data, US Department of Transportation, 2006
[7] Fit to Drive: a cost benefit analysis of more frequent eyesight testing for UK drivers, RSA Insurance Group plc, 2012
[8] Estimating Local Mortality Burdens associated with Particulate Air Pollution, Public Health England, 2014
[9] Steve H. L. Yim and Steven R. H. Barrett, “Public Health Impacts of Combustion Emissions in the United Kingdom”, Environmental Science & Technology 2012 46 (8), 4291-4296